|Ministry of Health and Family Welfare|
|Friday, 19 August 2011 16:51|
National Leprosy Eradication Programme (Nlep)
Leprosy, a chronic bacterial disease with long incubation period affects all age groups and is classified mainly as Pauci Bacillary (PB) and Multi Bacillary (MB). Since the leprosy bacilli affect the peripheral nerves, the patients lose sensation by and large in their hands, feet and eyes if not properly cared for. Injuries to these insensitive parts may lead to disfigurement, the main consequence of this disease which generates fear and stigma. Thus early detection and prompt treatment of leprosy with prescribed Multi Drug Therapy (MDT) not only cures leprosy, but also interrupts its transmission to others.
With efficient implementation of well planned efforts since 1953-54, India has very substantially controlled leprosy. The goal of leprosy elimination at National level (i.e. PR of andlt;1 case/10,000 population) as set by National Health Policy 2002 has been achieved in the month of December 2005 when the PR was 0.95/10,000 population. During 1981 our country recorded a prevalence of 57.6 cases per 10,000 population whereas in March 2006 it has come down to only 0.84 per 10,000 population with 0.95 lakh cases on record. As on March 2006, 26 States/UTs have achieved the status of leprosy elimination and 9 more States/ UTs are having PR between 1 to 2 and are near to this goal.
To address the complex problem like larger population size, migration, poor health infrastructure and increasing prevalence in urban areas, there was a need for Urban Leprosy Programme.
Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have been involved for the cause of leprosy elimination for many decades and their contributions have made a positive impact in reducing the prevalence of leprosy. Presently 30 NGOs are getting grant-inaid from Govt. of India under Survey Education and Treatment (SET) scheme. Few NGO run Hospitals are also conducting reconstructive surgeries (RCS) where facility for these services are available.
International Federation of Leprosy Elimination (ILEP) is actively involved as partner in NLEP. In India ILEP is constituted by 10 Agencies viz. The Leprosy Mission, Damien Foundation of India Trust, Netherland Leprosy Relief, German Leprosy Relief Association, Lepra India, ALES, AIFO, Fontilles – India, AERF - India and American Leprosy Mission. ILEP is supporting the Programme by various ways including Technical Support in 19 States with 165 District Technical Support Teams (DTST) covering 267 districts. In addition there are 9 State Level Technical Support Teams (STST) covering 17 States/ UTs. Each team has one Medical Officer supported by Non Medical supervisor / Non Medical Assistant (NMS/ NMA). ILEP also supports various NGOs in the country for care and Rehabilitation of leprosy patients.
The NLEP is being supported by WHO in the form of a package which covers support to all the state leprosy cells, technical support through deployment of State NLEP Coordinators in 10 states and also Zonal NLEP Coordinators in the high endemic states. WHO also extends financial support to NLEP for conducting periodic review meetings at national and state levels, monitoring and evaluation, simplified information system and capacity building of the state and district level officials in programme management. WHO also continues to provide entire requirement of antileprosy (MDT) drugs to the country with assistance from NOVARTIS.
NLEP is equipped with an inbuilt information system for concurrent monitoring and feedback for timely corrective measures at Central, State, District and Peripheral level of programme implementation.
After elimination of leprosy at National level, the country has still many areas in State, District andamp; Block level that need extra focus. The programme will continue with following strategy :-
National Programme for Control of Blindness
National Programme for Control of Blindness was launched in the year 1976 as a 100% Centrally Sponsored scheme with the goal to reduce the prevalence of blindness from 1.4% to 0.3%. As per Survey in 2001-02, prevalence of blindness is estimated to be 1.1%. Target for the 10th Plan is to reduce prevalence of blindness to 0.8% by 2007.
The objectives of the programme are: -
National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme
Iodine is an essential micronutrient with an average daily requirement of 100-150 micrograms for normal human growth and development. There is an increasing evidence of distribution of environmental Iodine deficiency in various parts of the country. On the basis of surveys conducted by the Directorate General of Health Services, Indian Council of Medical Research and the State Health Directorates, it has been found that out of 324 districts surveyed in 28 States and all the 7 Uts, 263 districts are endemic i.e. where the prevalence of IDDs is more than 10%. It is also estimated that more than 71 million persons are suffering from goiter and other Iodine Deficiency Disorders. These disorders include abortions, stillbirth, mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, goiter and neuromotor defects.
National Mental Health Programme (NMPH)
Severe mental disorders that include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, organic psychosis and major depression affect nearly 20 per 1000 population. This population needs continuous treatment and regular follow-up attention. Close to ten million severely mentally ill are in our country without adequate treatment by this estimate. More than half remain never- treated. Lack of knowledge on the treatment availability andamp; potential benefits of seeking treatment are important causes for the above. With a large population in our country and very few psychiatrists being available, less than one psychiatrist is available for every 3 lacs population. The psychiatrist / population ratio in rural areas that account for 70% of country’s population, could well be under one for every million.
To address this huge burden NMHP was started in 1982 with the following objectives:
A model for delivery of community based mental health care at the level of district was evolved and field-tested in Bellary district of Karnataka by NIMHANS between 1986- 1995. This model was adapted as the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) and it was implemented in 27 Districts across 22 states/UTs in the IXth plan beginning in the year 1996.
Scheme of Financial Assistance for Corrective Surgery and Rehabilitation of Polio Affected Children.
Source: CCPD Annual Report 2006-2007
|Last Updated on Thursday, 17 November 2011 10:02|
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